Health  and  Safety

Meeting the Standard on the Way to Raising the Bar

Viziv Technologies is ensuring the safe deployment and use of the Zenneck surface wave in all its applications. We are committed to always taking measures necessary to ensure the welfare of our workers and the public with respect to electromagnetic safety. 

We have coordinated with third-party organizations, as well as local, state and federal agencies, to ensure the safety of our research and facilities. We have implemented detailed RF safety and measurement protocols for use at the Viziv test site. Through interaction with an IEEE committee, known as ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety), Viziv stays current on all scientific studies regarding RF exposure that might have an impact on IEEE standards.

A Zenneck surface wave is similar to other types of wireless systems such as cellular networks, television and radio broadcasts, and wi-fi signals in that it possesses no inherent shock hazard. Precautions taken around Viziv structures are not dissimilar from those around current electrical and communications systems.

In other words, Viziv’s surface wave technology will join and improve the broad spectrum of existing safe, wireless applications that we already use every day.


Good is Not Good Enough

The electrical power and communication industries focus on two key factors when analyzing the safety of systems: the potential for electric shock and the local RF (radio frequency) field intensities. Viziv’s surface wave systems meet the most stringent standards for both. However, with time, we hope not simply to meet today’s standards, but to raise the bar of safety in each industry we touch.

More on Shock Hazard

Zenneck surface waves do not deliver a shock for the same reason radio station signals do not shock. Physics dictates that a surface wave in transit does not present a shock potential.

To create an electric shock, there must be a difference in voltage (or potential difference) between two points to overcome the resistance inherent in the material between the points. The potential difference between our head and feet is a good example. Due to the low field strengths created by Viziv surface wave systems (much like broadcast radio or television), the voltage potential between them is not enough to create a shock hazard. In contrast, when you touch an electrical wire, the voltage potential between the wire and your feet can be extremely high, meaning current would flow and energy would be dissipated through you. This is why great care should always be used when working on traditional electrical wiring. In contrast, only through the use of precisely designed receivers can power be transferred through Zenneck surface waves.

More on Radio Frequency Exposure

Based on the latest findings of the ICES, Viziv has implemented very detailed RF safety and measurement protocols for use at Viziv test sites. The electromagnetic spectrum consists of ionizing and non-ionizing energy frequencies. The energy used by Viziv for the generation of the Zenneck surface wave is in the non-ionizing portion of the spectrum. Viziv’s systems currently utilize only the lower end of this spectrum (below 1.8 MHz). The human body absorbs more non-ionizing energy at higher frequencies around the FM/VHF television range (54 MHz-216 MHz), thus the exposure limits are most strict at those frequencies. At the lower frequencies used by Viziv’s systems, the body absorbs very little energy and the exposure limits reflect such. Exposure guidelines in the U.S. are based upon proven threshold biological effects and seek to protect the public from such exposures by employing a safety factor of 50X to that threshold limit. At frequencies between 300 kHz and 100 GHz, the FCC regulates human exposure to RF energy (reference FCC OET Bulletin No. 65). At frequencies between 0 Hz and 300 GHz, the standard widely accepted in the United States (and elsewhere) is that which is issued by the IEEE in C95.1-2019. In the overlapping frequencies between the IEEE standard and the FCC standard, the exposure limits are identical. The IEEE standard C95.1–2019 equals 614 V/m for electromagnetic field intensities between 3 kHz and 30 MHz. This standard is used for all RF sources in this frequency range. Fields produced by our surface wave systems to move power globally are expected to produce intensities measuring less than 2% of the IEEE standard.

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